Personalidad, mentira y engaño

José Luís González Álvarez, Iván Besteiro Yusti

Resumen


La personalidad afecta a todos los aspectos de la conducta humana. Por lo tanto, es de esperar que tenga un impacto en el uso de la mentira y el engaño. Se ha señalado que podrían existir diferencias individuales (personalidad) que explicarían por qué algunas personas mienten con mayor frecuencia que otras, o por qué son mejores engañando. Establecer bien la relación entre personalidad y engaño puede ayudar a mejorar la detección de la mentira en contextos de gran trascendencia, como el policial y forense. En este trabajo se han revisado algunos estudios recientes que han abordado la relación entre personalidad, mentira y engaño, desde distintas ópticas; y se han tratado de identificar los factores más relevantes, en términos del modelo de personalidad del rasgo, con fundamento biológico, de Eysenck (1969). Se concluye que, si bien hay indicios muy prometedores de que ciertos aspectos de la personalidad se asocian claramente con una mayor tendencia y capacidad para el engaño, e incluso con determinados tipos de engaño, los trabajos son todavía escasos y limitados, por lo que es necesaria más investigación y con mejoras metodológicas.

 

Palabras clave: revisión, personalidad, mentira, engaño.

 

Abstract (English)

Personality affects all aspects of human behaviour. Therefore, it is expected that our personality plays a huge part in falsehood and deception. It has been noted that there may exist individual differences (personality) that would explain why some people lie with more frequency than others, or are better at lying.  Establishing the relationship between personality and deception can contribute to improve the detection of lies in con-texts of great significance such as the forensic or police. In this work, some recent studies have been reviewed which address the relationship between personality, falsehood and deception from different views; and the most relevant factors have been identified  based on the trait theory with biological foundation by Eysenk (1969).  It is concluded that although there are very promising indications that some personality traits are associated with a higher tendency and ability to lie, even with different forms of deception, there are still few rigorous studies which show this. More studies and methodological improvements in these studies are needed in order to develop this theory.

 

Keywords

Review, personality, falsehood, deception.


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Referencias


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